Hotz, H. Uzzell, T. Berger, L. 1997. Linkage groups of protein-coding genes in western Palearc tic water frogs reveal extensive evolutionary conservation. Genetics 147(1):255-270

Abstract -- Among progeny of a hybrid (Rana shqiperica x Rana lessonae) x Rana lessonae, 14 of 22 loci form four linkage groups (LGs): (1) mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, carbonate dehydratase-2, esterase 4, peptidase D; (2) mannosephosphate isomerase, lactate dehydrogenase-B, sex, hexokinase-1, peptidase B; (3) albumin, fructose-biphosphatase-1, guanine deaminase; (4) mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, cytosolic malic enzyme, xanthine oxidase. Fructose-biphosphate aldolase-2 and cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase possibly form a fifth LG. Mitochondrial aconitate hydratase, a-glucosidase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and phosphogluco-mutase-2 are unlinked to other loci. All testable linkages (among eight loci of LGs 1, 2, 3, and 4) are shared with eastern Palearctic water frogs. Including published data, 44 protein loci can be assigned to 10 of the 13 chromosomes in Holarctic Rana. Of testable pairs among 18 protein loci, agreement between Palearctic and Nearctic Rana is complete (125 unlinked, 14 linked pairs among 14 loci of five syntenies), and Holarctic Rana and Xenopus laevis are highly concordant (125 shared nonlinkages, 13 shared linkages, 3 differences). Several Rana syntenies occur in mammals and fish. Many syntenies apparently have persisted for 60-140x10^6 years (frogs), some even for 350-400x10^6 years (mammals and teleosts).

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